The Turkish Statistical Institute announced the results of the “Research and Development Activities for 2020”. The amount of research and development (R&D) expenditures in Turkey increased by ₺9 billion 3 million compared to the previous year and reached ₺54 billion 957 million.
The amount of research and development (R&D) expenditures in Turkey increased by ₺9 billion 3 million compared to the previous year and reached ₺54 billion 957 million.
The Turkish Statistical Institute announced the results of the “Research and Development Activities for 2020”.
Accordingly, the share of R&D expenditures in gross domestic product increased from 1.06% in 2019 to 1.09% in 2020. R&D expenditure increased by ₺9 billion 3 million in 2020 compared to the previous year and reached ₺54 billion 957 million.
Financial and non-financial companies had the largest share in R&D expenditures with 64.8%, followed by higher education with 28.4%.
The share of general government R&D expenditures, including R&D expenditures made by non-profit organizations, in total R&D expenditures was 6.8%. Personnel expenditures constituted the largest expenditure item with 52.6%.
While 57.2% of R&D expenditures made in 2020 were financed by financial and non-financial companies, 28.4% was financed by the general government, 12.3% by higher education, 2% by foreign resources and 0.1% by other domestic resources.
THE NUMBER OF R&D PERSONNEL IN FTE IS APPROXIMATELY TO 200 THOUSANDS
Last year, 199,371 people worked as full-time equivalent (FTE) R&D personnel.
Looking at the distribution by sectors, 65.3% of the R&D personnel in terms of FTE took place in financial and non-financial companies, 29.9% in higher education and 4.7% in the general government sector, which includes non-profit organizations.
The number of female R&D personnel in FTE constituted 31.9% of the total with 63 thousand 655 people in 2020.
32.1% OF R&D STAFF HAVE DOCTORATES AND EQUIVALENT EDUCATION
According to their education level, 33.1% of the R&D personnel had a bachelor’s degree. This was followed by doctorate and equivalent with 32.1%, graduate degree with 24.6%, vocational school with 5.1%, high school and below with 5.1%.
In terms of FTE, the distribution of R&D personnel by education level was 45.7% undergraduate, 21.4% graduate, 19% doctorate and equivalent, 7.2% vocational school, 6.8% high school and below.
According to the 2nd Level of the Statistical Regional Units Classification, Ankara was the region with the highest R&D expenditures in the same period, with 32.5%. This city was followed by Istanbul with 25.6% and Kocaeli, Sakarya, Duzce, Bolu and Yalova regions with 10.6%.
When the startups that carry out R&D activities in the manufacturing industry are classified according to their technology levels, it was seen that 44.7% of the ₺20 billion 333 million R&D expenditures in the manufacturing industry in 2020 were made by startups in the field of high technology.
Source: Sabah / Translated by Irem Yildiz